Thursday, 28 April 2011

Klon Buffer



And after a few requests here's a version using the TL072 opamp (or any other dual opamp you fancy trying):


119 comments:

  1. Hey Mark, quick question - not related to klon buffer sorry ! - any reason you might suppose to cause pop with the DPDT daughter boards? Ive built a phaser, and using my Easy Vibe at practice today, both exhibit pop. Any way to cure it? Doesnt seem to be an issue on other builds. thanks

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  2. The effect switching with with the daughter boards is still true bypass and as such you can get popping, which some circuits will be more susceptible to. The first thing to try usually is to put a pulldown resistor at the beginning of the circuit.

    To save having to mess around getting another resistor into an effect that already has the offboard wiring done, it will probably be much easier to just add the resistor to the daughter board. Try a 1M and solder it between the TO-IN track and the GND2 track. Like this:

    http://i76.photobucket.com/albums/j6/IvIark_2006/DIY/Daughterboardpulldownresistor.png

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  3. Cheers Mark, I will give that a shot, thats pretty much what I thought I could do but thought it was worth asking.

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  4. I know it easy one, but I not really into soldering.
    So is there a vero daughter board?
    I really do not have way to make PCB?

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  5. This is the vero layout:
    http://i76.photobucket.com/albums/j6/IvIark_2006/Layouts/Vero/MilleniumBypass2.png

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  7. I just wonder can the DPDT be momentary, so I could have boost just while holding it?
    And what is worrying me why there is no knob?
    The same in MXR Microamp.

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  8. Yes it can be momentary and there is no knob because this is purely a buffer, and so a high impedence input, low impedence output. There is no boost built in like the Microamp.

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  9. OK, so I just missed the point for what purpose it is used while playing then ?:-(

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  10. Buffers are used often by people with a lot of true bypass pedals that may be experiencing loss of treble due to the added capacitance and resistance of multiple patch cables and true bypass switch soldering. A buffer makes the line low impedance which makes the chain much less susceptible to this treble loss. So it's designed to keep integrity in your signal. This particular one is the same as the buffer used in a Klon.

    If it's an actually Klon you want to build then there have been a couple of vero layouts posted on freestompboxes.org.

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  11. I was thinking about MXR Microamp, I just posted here because of "daughter board".
    Then you very much for your explanation.

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  12. That would be the stupidest question you ever got.
    I got two boards, but
    both boards have +9V, so I just wire them to battery?

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  13. Yes, +9V would go to the positive terminal of the battery

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  14. Sorry, but what does the daughter board do?
    Preserves switching noise?

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  15. The daughter board is for millennium bypass switching. So you can do true bypass switching plus LED illumination for any effect build with just a DPDT stomp switch.

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  16. Thanks again. I was thinking about making A/B switch, and for these would be any circuit involved or just 3 jacks, 1 footswich and a case?
    Would be there a pop?

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  17. Making an AB switch MAY be ok but it depends. The LED switching will only work properly when an effect is turned on in each loop because millennium bypass works by the DC resistance of the effect switching the daughter board mosfet on and off. So it won't work correctly with nothing in the loops, so if you try to test it when you first build it then make sure you've got a couple of effects hooked up in it too or the LED will stay on.

    There could be a pop, just like normal true bypass switching but a lot will depend on the effects you're using in each loop.

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  18. So I will go just for normal A/B, no LED just jacks.
    The completely off topic question:
    Do you know of any octaves 1 or 2 up that can be done home with out fuzz?

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  20. Hi Mark. I'm going to build a few of these and thought the Klon buffer is usually a TL072 rather than a TL071. Does it not matter? Thanks for all the new layouts by-the- way, I really look forward to having a look to see what you have put up each week and our band sound it really benefiting for the pedals I have made.

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    Replies
    1. The TL072 is a dual channel and has a different pinout. I'll do another based on the dual channel ICs though as a few people have mentioned wanting to do the same thing.

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    2. Thanks Mark. Apart from anything else I seem to have a lot more TL072's at hand. It there any benefit you can see using one over the other?

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    3. No benefit as far as I'm aware. I've heard some people say they sounded better with a TL072, but they have identical specs (same datasheet, same numbers) so I'm not convinced about that one at all. They should sound and react identically.

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  21. Thanks for posting this... saved me some time :)

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  22. Built this, but I didn't use a TL072. Instead, I used a CA3260 (dual channel CA3130). This one's a keeper. I thought the Cornish buffer was good, but for bass, this destroys it IMO. It really is like lifting a blanket off your amp!
    Thanks!

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  23. Finally got around to boxing the sucker. This was more of a test to see how Pedal Parts Plus' paintjobs are. They're nice, to say the least.
    http://i.imgur.com/EugAv.jpg

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    1. They do a really good job. Just received 5 boxes and i was just amazed 'bout Candy Apple, Psycho Lime, Anodized Blue and Trans Gold - which looks like a gold bar... Never going to paint another box myself again. :)
      +m

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  24. I would like to add a second output with a momentary switch to add a tuner that I can switch in as needed. Can this be done with the Klon Buffer?

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  25. On the original klon, does the buffer go infront or after the overdrive? Thanks

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  26. The opamp is the same as the first opamp in the complete Klon, but the components after the opamp output in the buffer layout are only used in the Klon circuit when the effect is bypassed. So all in front except the 1u, 100K and 560R which are never in circuit when the effect is on.

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  27. Hey guys - is this buffer on the noisy side? I built this and the Cornish, and while I like the tone better with the Klon, I found it to be really noisy. Is that supposed to be the case?

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  28. Hi Ivlark, I was wondering if I could change TL071 to NE5534? THX!

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    1. You could do that without a problem. NE5534 and TL071 have exactly the same pinouts.
      +m

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  29. Firstly thanks for the great vero and secondly any reason I can't use 1.1M instead of 1M. Have spares of those?

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  30. How could i add a volume control to this?

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  31. Hi Ivlark, I have build a simple ABY switcher, I want to put 2 Klon buffer before each out (A and B). it's right or it's enough one buffer at input in order to have no signal loss wen use in Y mode?
    Thanks in advance

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  32. Intrigued what the changes between the TL071 and TL072 version are, as the IC's are pin compatible.

    Are those to balance out the difference in the chips and make the two sound the same?

    Thanks,

    Ian

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    Replies
    1. The TL072 is a 2 channel TL071 but they're not pin compatible.

      The TL071 is:

      2 - input
      3 + input
      6 output

      The TL072 is:

      1 output1
      2 - input1
      3 + input1
      5 + input2
      6 - input2
      7 output2

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  33. Replies
    1. It can but that's right at the limit so I don't know whether it's a particularly good idea. The NE5532 can accept up to 22V so that may be a better idea

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    2. Ok I think I'm going to try it with NE5532 then, because I saw huge difference on cornish buffer with 18 instead of 9 volts. One last question, should I use the TL071 or the 72 layout for the NE5532?

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  34. Wow! Just created a little box to split off a dry signal before my pedals son hought i'd put a buffer in there, dropped this guy in it and it has made such a difference. Really nice preservation of the highs and slightly higher signal strength. Wasn't expecting it to be that prominent to be honest. Thanks!!

    Used TL072.

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    1. interesting - so you just go into the buffer and then out to 2x jacks in parallel?

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    2. If you are going to be only using one 'channel' at a time eg when channel 2 is to your tuner and you want to mute channel 1, you only need a DPDT switch- you're after an A/B box. A 3PDT switch will let you add an LED indicator- a good idea so your thunderous entrance chords don't go to your tuner instead of your amp. (Yep, done that before.)

      If you want two or three or four or up to a silly number of channels to be live at once, Jack Orman's Buffer Splitter is a great circuit, and one I have used successfully. It's a very simple build, like all Orman gear works extremely well, and Jack provides a stripboard layout.

      http://www.muzique.com/lab/splitter.htm

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    3. That's interesting! - thanks for posting.

      IvIark - is it possible to get a copy of the schematic you used to do this layout?

      I guess the principle from the above link should apply to this circuit so you could have a Klon buffer with a single input but multiple outputs?

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  35. I highly recommend JRC4580 if someone needs more transparent signal than the TL072

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    1. Did you also notice a bit of treble loss with the TL072? I'm also finding it compresses the signal a little bit. If i hit the guitar strings hard the headroom seems to be considerably less than without the buffer.

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  36. what does the offboard wiring look like on this?
    is it the same?
    can this be an "always on" effect?
    (this is actually a question for all 3 of the buffers you have on here...)
    thanks!

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    1. I would never bother with a stomp switch with a buffer, but you could always include a toggle switch so you can true bypass it at any point if you want to. I've done a layout for a Klon and Cornish buffer which I would use with a DPDT toggle on/on so that I could choose the buffer I want on the fly, and then a second toggle to bypass them completely. That would be the ultimate buffer for me, but I'm struggling to get it into a 1590A box which I'd really want to. I'll sort it out soon! :o)

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    2. so how would i connect the input, output, and groung here?

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  37. hey, how would i connect offboard here?
    does ground connect to the power source and both input and output?

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    1. Check the 'offboard' wiring section. I basically move all the ground points to 1 jacket. Including the 9volt ground.

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  38. Just made two of these buffers to spice up the signal in my (non buffered) FX Loop. It works so well. Even with all that cable length and pedals there is no difference in sound. This is such a great site. Thanks very much!

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  39. So 2 quick questions I was thinking of making two of these. One at the end of my chain as a buffered splitter for two amps. one near the front.

    1. For the splitter it's as simple as just running two output and ground wires to two seperate output jacks? Or is there another step

    2. My board is on the parger side and has a mix of tru bypass and buffered pedals. Would you stick another buffer at the begining of the chain, the middle of the chain, or not worry about it?

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  40. Brian, I also use 2 amps in parallel. But I use the Palmer triage amp switcher. It has additional features such as; reverse polarity, ground off.

    You may experience a ground loop, so you can eliminate that with the switch. You may also experience an out of phase sound.. cancelling bass and lower mid frequencies. So by that switch you restore fullness in the sound. You can make the buffer and insert a switch to cut out the ground wire to one of the amps (cable is still shielded by the amps ground). The phase reverse thing can also be done by twisting the speaker + and - of 1 of the amps.

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  41. I built this one today but found that I lost some treble response with the TL072, so swapped it with a JRC4580 and it does indeed sound very transparent with this IC, so this is a great one to build if you need a buffer but don't want any colouration to your sound.

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  42. Forgot to ask, how do you wire an LED for this one if your not using a bypass switch?

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  43. Forgot to ask, how do you wire an LED for this one if your not using a bypass switch?

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    Replies
    1. Led anode (+) to +9v Dc Jack, led cathode to ground (dc jack, input jack sleeve, output jack sleeve....).

      BR

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  44. Thanks for your reply JaviCAP. I did try wiring it like you said but the LED doesn't work, so I guess I've put too much heat on and burned it out.

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    1. Yes, maybe you have burnt it, as this way it works (I've wired many effects this way.

      Just don't forget that you need a limiting resistor, as in any usual build. I forgot it once and you can fancy the result :P

      BR

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  45. I built the circuit with TL072, WITHOUT SWITCH, my buffer is always on. The buffer produces POP when I turn on the effects that follow the buffer. I solved the problem by placing a resistor from A1 to D1. This mod works after 40 seconds the circuit is powered.

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    1. I didn't seem to have this problem with this buffer, but did when I built the Orman Op Amp Buffer where my other effects would "pop" during switching. I added a 1k resistor from output to ground which acts like a pulldown I assume.

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  46. If I'm not mistaken to make this buffer into a boost or act like a preamp, change one of the 100k resistors (that connects to the 47uF cap) to a 1M pot (for gain factor of 10x)... I'm not sure if it matters which one is changed???

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    1. No, the two 100K resistors are the voltage divider to give you the half supply reference voltage. What makes this a buffer is the link between pins 2 and 6, so if you wanted to make it into a booster you'd need to add a pot between those two pins to vary the resistance between them. Then the amount of gain you'll get is the pot value divided by whatever the input resistance is.

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    2. ^ And remove the link of course :o)

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    3. I assume you are referring to the TL071 version above, so for the TL072 version it would be a pot between pins 1 & 2? Adjusting the resistance between the inverting input and the output, makes sense now. Just got to determine the "optimal" pot value based on the input resistance as you recommend (I'm still abit of a beginner to this stuff!) I'm just looking for enough boost without it causing my amp to become distorted, somewhere in the ballpark of what an SHO can do with the gain 1/2 way (around say +10 dB to +15 dB?)... Thanks!

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  47. What should I change (pref. replace resistor with micro pot) to make it over unity gain? I suppose +3dB should make it. My wah drops signal when engaged but pushed with BD2 really sings. The thing is I need to mount small booster inside wah or next to wah on G-Lab TB wah-pad. Therefore, I'm looking for a little booster. Probably SHO would make it, but why not Klon Buffer? :)

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    1. Ideally it sounds like you want to mod the wah to increase volume and not have the klon buffer be a boost as I would assume it would not solve your issue, it just will make everything abit louder still making the wah lower volume than you want. SHO is nice but its not exactly transparent, it can be abit "shrill", the AMZ mosfet booster might be a better option but again I think the best way is to try to get abit more volume out of the wah itself.

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  48. Hi |v|ark,
    I was wondering how you would install one of these into a volume pedal (particularly an ernie ball) so that you wouldn't experience the tone suck from the tuner out. Would you simply place the buffer immediately after the input jack and send it into the board or would you possibly need to send separate output leads to the board and the tuner out?

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    1. You'll want to test/check the placement of the buffer whether it is before or after the volume pot, it will make a difference in the "sweep" effect of the pot if you are using the volume pedal for swells. I had experimented with this before and forgot now which way was optimal (not causing any perceived change in the sweep, assuming that is what is preferred).

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  49. Hi Ivlark, I'm building a Rub-a-Dub Reverb that will be always on with no footswitch,the last pedal in my chain. I'd love to add this buffer to it, but A] I'm not sure how to wire the two circuits together and B] I've never built a non-foot-switchable,always on pedal and might run into problems there...
    If anybody has some advice as to how to wire this up I'm all ears!

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    1. For the two circuits, just use the input of the Klon buffer as the input of your effect box, connect the output of the Klon buffer to the input of the reverb and use the reverb's output as the output of your effect box.
      Wiring up an effect without a switch is actually pretty simple too. Connect the input jack to the effect's input (in your case that is the Klon's input) and connect the output jack to the effect's output (in your case the reverb's output). Done.

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  50. Hi, my TL072 gets very hot. It actually made a spark when I touched the side of the board. I am sure it is oriented properly. Do you have any idea what might be the problem?

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    Replies
    1. Sounds link a short circuit somewhere. You're going to have to carefully check part placement and your soldering for unwanted bridges. Check it all over and if you're still having problems after that post all the IC pin voltages to see if that gives a clue

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  51. Thanks for the reply - I've checked placement and looked for bridges and, to the best of my knowledge, it is properly built (there is a bridge that has no other connection, so I believe that is not an issue). Here is a link to photos of the top and bottom of the board: http://imgur.com/a/XugHJ

    Here are the voltages:

    0.03 - 0.05 (This and pin two seem to oscillate between values, sometimes as high as 0.16 and always descend)
    0.03 - 0.05
    4.23
    0

    0
    0
    0
    9.31

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    1. The power readings are ok, though 9.31 V seems a bit high for a standard 9V supply to me. But it's still in the ok range and the IC can handle way more than that. I'd say check again for bridges, I marked a few suspicious spots: http://kephost.hu/share/5F8E_5306FCCF Especially the one to the right of the one you marked too might be interesting, because if that is a bridge too, then you are effectively overriding the cut between the two bridges. Also I think you are using a bit too much of tin in some places and it does not always seem to flow nicely on the copper. Heat the copper not only the lead of the part and especially not the tin. Let the rosin flow on the surface. And always clean the surface before soldering. I usually use Scotch Brite and also go over the surface with alcohol too right before I start with the soldering.

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    2. Sorry misread voltages, that'll teach me to read things in the admin area where the comments aren't formatted properly. So the problem is around pins 1 and 2 and like Csaba pointed out, that blob of solder over to the top of the board (which is another common rail) could well be the problem. So the issue could be around the IC, or maybe the 1u cap, but more likely a bridge around the IC or a faulty IC.

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    3. Plus I assume you are using a dual channel opamp?

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  52. Thanks Mark and Csaba - this was my first strip board effect. Of course I eventually found out that the real problem was when I wired the DC jack I soldered the 9v and Ground to the opposite lugs... I was wondering why I had never seen -9 volts coming onto the board from my adapter before! Definitely fried the opamp (I was using the TL072) and it fired right up when I replaced it.

    Very valuable troubleshooting session for me. Once I removed the suspect opamp, I made a simple circuit on my breadboard and compared the voltages to what I was getting from other TL072s and that confirmed it. Still learning the skills that will allow me to avoid these rookie mistakes! Thanks for the help.

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    Replies
    1. I'm glad you figured out the problem yourself. Eventually I think almost all of us have fried an opamp or a transistor at least once in our lives - that's just part of the learning process :D Be happy it didn't happen with a more expensive/delicate part ;)

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  53. Does anyone know how you can build a split buffer? I've never built a pedal before, and I figured a buffer is a good place to start. Plus I need one. I need a buffered splitter though.

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    Replies
    1. Quite simple: you only need to have as many buffers as outputs needed. A good starting point to design yours is Jack Orman's JFET buffered splitter: http://www.muzique.com/lab/splitter.htm
      I think with a Klon buffer you would need to have the input cap (100n), the bias voltage divider (2x100k from the 9V to ground), the power filter cap (47u) and the resistor from bias voltage to input (1M) mutual for all channels. From there you can take the signal and build actually as many of the opamp stages as you want, all of them having separate outputs. If you used a TL072 it makes sense to utilize the second opamp in that package, but then you need to rework the layout quite a bit. With the TL071 layout you can use Mark's layout for the second (and third, fourth, etc.) buffer, just ommit the mutual parts, take the signal from your first (full) buffer from the row 4 from above on the left and connect it your other stages to the same point.
      Also as Jack states you can put a simple spst switch in paralel with any of the 100k output resistors, which would pull your signal to ground when engaged, and thus would silence that output of your splitter.

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    2. Tried to draw an example with both TL071 and TL072. These are not verified, so you will have to verify them yourself...
      http://members.upc.hu/dudas.csaba5/buffered_splitter_TL071.jpg
      http://members.upc.hu/dudas.csaba5/buffered_splitter_TL072.jpg

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    3. ...and of course you can mix the two. You can build the first stage with either TL072 or TL071 and add the following stages with the other IC. Also if you use TL072s you don't need to use always both opamps if you don't need that many outputs.

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  54. Hey Csaba Dudas, thanks for the advice. My always on reverb now has the clone buffer in front of it and its a great 'last-in-line' pedal! :-)

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  55. Hi everyone, i've just built the Timmy from elsewhere on this site and it's so amazing as a clean boost that have replaced my Klon clone which was previously serving same duties. However could anyone offer some advice on how to work the Klon Buffer (TL072 version) into the equation? Should i just rig it inside the Timmy box to kick in when the Timmy is in bypass mode and out when the Timmy is engaged or have the buffer on all the time? Couldnt figure out if best to post this here on in the Timmy thread so plumped for here. All thoughts gratefully received.

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    Replies
    1. I'd have the buffer in a small 1590A box at the beginning of your chain, then you can switch it in and out whenever you feel the need. If you prefer to build other effects with buffered bypass then yes you can put it in the same box as the effect and wire the stomp switch so the buffer is in circuit in the LED off position, and the effect is in circuit in the LED on position.

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    2. Hi Mark, many thanks for that. At the moment I've got a buffer at the beginning of the chain and the Klon was effectively giving it a little shove at the end. My understanding of the design considerations around buffers is pretty slight but I'd read somewhere that having a buffer at end as well as start was good if you had long cable going from pedal board to amp so the Klon was handily providing this. Hence I was looking at preserving the arrangement. From what you've suggested above I could put the Klon buffer inside the Timmy box and just engage it for the bypass? When the Timmy is on does it make the buffer redundant anyway? From a design perspective does it matter that I have a buffer at all on the exit from the pedal board? Thanks for your views (and for all the amazing layouts on this site!)

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  56. Hi guys! I have a buffered bypass pedal that kind of sucks tone. Could I remove the buffer from it, and replace it with this one?

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  57. I've found this buffer to be not as bright as dry signal, but i used TL072's which i always assumed were just fine but I'm going to switch to JRC4580's. Can anyone tell me what makes the 4580 better than the tl072? I'm curious to know whether i should be digging deeper in the IC world for better IC's for everything i make.

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  58. Help. I just built this. When I tested it, it worked nice, clean and quiet. I'm just confused because of my voltages.

    1 - 8.16
    2 - 8.17
    3 - 8.16
    4 - 0
    5 - 0
    6 - 0
    7 - 0
    8 - 9.4

    When I measure the voltage on Vbias I get the right VCC/2 ( around 4.65). What seems to be the issue? Thanks.

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  59. cannot get this to work either ..should be a very. very, very, very simple, easy, nooby, fledgling, newb, beginner layout right ?

    maybe the IC chips from ebay? but I tried others from tayda, small bear and others to..I cannot get anything to work

    http://postimg.org/image/75jz9a2ut/

    http://postimg.org/image/spaipq8dx/

    http://s2.postimg.org/lbzq4idq1/IMG_0079.jpg

    http://s2.postimg.org/wyf8rwbnd/IMG_0080.jpg

    I am going to start posting pictures before people think I am crazy complaining on all these post, its only because I am asking for help and am frustrated..seems like everyone can do this but me and I am having a hard time finding my errors which I am sure are there ..so I need everyone help . thanks you in advance to anyone who helps

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    Replies
    1. Your 1Meg resistor is connected to Pin 2. Should be Pin 3. Move the top leg down 1 row.

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  60. Hello, I'm considering of making this work hand in hand with a digital pot. So I'll connect as mark said my wiper and terminal a to pins 6 and 7 and remote the link. So that will give me a buffer/booster function. If I want to make an attenuator/booster like say the lpb1, can I do it on this circuit or do I need a completely different approach? Thank you!

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  61. Just found this comment to all Klon buffers:
    https://manticorefx.wordpress.com/2015/10/29/klon-buffers-theyre-all-wrong/

    If I look at the schematic here
    http://www.next.gr/uploads/61/klon-buffer-schematic.gif
    I think he has a point. What do you think?

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    Replies
    1. That was a bit of a rant to be fair. He ends on "At least include the 27K's and the 4u7's" Its a voltage divider setup. Who cares what values are used? Certainly not the opamp bias anyway. Its used solely to provide a Vcc/2. He even admits that it won't make a difference.

      And the 4u7....the input cap is 100n. As a buffer, whats the point in having an output cap bigger than the input cap? The input bass response is determined by the input cap. Unless an opamp buffer somehow increases low frequency output...there's no reason to have an output cap that large.

      So, if you want to build a Klon buffer spec for spec then yes include these component changes, but I'm sure you won't hear any difference whatsoever. And, as he said in his article, the values used here are probably much more common in peoples parts stash. I honestly wouldn't worry about it.

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  62. Can I feed the circuit more than 9v for more headroom???

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    Replies
    1. Yes. With electrolytic caps rated 25V or over, 18V will be ok. This does not apply to complete klon circuit.
      +m

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    2. This comment has been removed by the author.

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  63. Great, thanks! I've kind of run into a problem just now...

    I've built the effect on a breadboard ( following the regular schematic) and it worked just fine.

    Second time around on a strip board (like the one above tl072) and it worked even better!

    But when it came time to have it done in a enclosure it stopped?! I wanted to build it as an always on pedal but it doesn't work somehow. Everything is connected to the right place... When I check the board with an audio prob I noticed that there's no audio coming out of pin 1 and 2. There's audio on pin3 and 8. Do you guys want me to check for voltages on each pin??

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    Replies
    1. Maybe you by accident wired the output wrong and grounded the tip? What readings do you get on all pins?

      1 ? 8 9V
      2 ? 7 0V
      3 ? 6 0V
      4 GND 5 0V

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    2. Hi!... Bottom line the op-amp was fried. Gave it -9V by mistake!

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    3. With the second op amp of the TL072 you should tie its inputs to the virtual ground. Better for battery life and internal noise.

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  64. Hello,

    Could I use a 15V power supply for this Klon Buffer ? If not, Are there any buffer thay support 15V ?

    thank you very much !

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  65. According to the specs the TL-07X should be able to function with a +15V power supply. http://www.ti.com/lit/ds/symlink/tl074a.pdf
    Just remember to have all the other components to be 16V+ (preferably higher)

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    Replies
    1. I read the TL072's datasheet and I already found this information! However, my doubt is exactly about the other components, i.e, the resistors and capacitors values. Should they remain the same ?

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    2. Resistors will be fine, 16V caps should be fine for this circuit too because they will never get anything like the full 15V supply across them.

      For opamps capable of +/-15V, that is a 30V swing so using them at 0 - 15V is no problem at all.

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    3. Thank you Mark and Arnold Dikstaal !

      It really works on 0 - 15V

      I am using this buffer in a "line out" bass amplifier. It will be very helpful for me !

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  66. If I plug only the guitar and the buffer, without pedals, the sound must remain the same ?

    ReplyDelete